How to export from Russia
Step 1. Decide on the country you are going to work with
Step 2. Study the legislation of both countries
Remember that when exporting, the VAT rate is zero, but you still need to confirm this with documents by sending them to the tax service. You will need a contract with the buyer and a delivery document. Its type depends on the destination country. If you deliver to the EEU countries, you need an application for the import of goods and payment of indirect taxes: the buyer in his country fills them out. Your partner receives a tax mark and sends it to you. If you deliver your goods outside the EEU, you need a customs declaration.
Step 3. Think through the logistics
Estimate the time and cost of delivery to the country. You can provide the logistics organization to the buyer: then the seller only ships the goods from a warehouse in Russia, and the buyer delivers it on their own or through a logistics company. Transport documents are necessary for the carriage of the goods and confirm that they were accepted for transportation from the seller. The type of document depends on the delivery method.
If the delivery is carried out:
Step 4. Find a buyer
You need to find a buyer abroad. However, it is not the most challenging stage in the entire export chain.
Step 5. Conclusion of contracts and selecting the payment form
The more detailed you describe the terms of the transaction in the contract, the fewer difficulties will arise when exporting. Even the most insignificant details should be discussed and fixed in advance.
The parties are the seller of the goods and the buyer. In some cases, there is an intermediary in this chain. For example, you do not sell goods directly but to a cargo terminal or logistics company.
You should mention the subject of the transaction in the contract. This is what you sell. The contract must specify and describe the product and its characteristics:
It would be better to describe the product in as much detail as possible. This will allow you to assign it the correct code in the consignment note of foreign economic activity and save from problems with a potential buyer and customs.
The contract must specify the quantity of the product, its weight or volume, and packaging.
The information specified in the contract must correspond to the actual size of the delivery. An extra unit of goods in the batch can turn into a problem with customs
Specify the cost of one unit of the product and the entire batch as a whole. It is essential to specify the details of the transaction payment in the contract:
The contract must specify the following payment terms:
It is necessary to agree on the terms of delivery even before drawing up the contract. International commerce terms (Incoterms) are eleven generally accepted terms, abbreviated by the first three letters, that regulate the international supply of goods. Application of these rules:
Group "E" — the EXW delivery condition, according to which the seller only makes the goods available to the buyer at its premises; then group "F" — the FCA, FAS, and FOB delivery conditions, according to which the seller is obliged to transfer the goods to the carrier specified by the buyer; then group "C" — the CFR, CIF, CPT, and CIP delivery conditions, according to which the seller is obliged to conclude a contract of carriage, but without assuming the risk of loss or damage to the goods or additional costs due to events that occurred after shipment and dispatch;and finally, group "D" — the terms of delivery of DAP, DPU and DDP, under which the seller must bear all the costs and risks necessary to deliver the goods to their destination.
Indicate the time of shipment and the time of delivery of the goods to the buyer. It is best to link the delivery time to the time of receipt of the prepayment. This is the safest option for the exporter. The duration of the contract is usually one year, but it is always necessary to make a note "until the parties fully fulfill their obligations.
If you work without prepayment, then terms of acceptance of the goods should be prescribed separately. For example, specify the percentage of possible defective goods in the shipment and other possible situations. So the buyer will not be able to avoid paying for the goods.
Be sure to specify the ways to resolve disputes in the contract.
Describe the details and contacts of the parties:
All business correspondence should be saved because this can help in resolving possible disputes.
If you export the product to Europe, then it must have a special marking. The rules of the EU countries establish that the following information must be indicated on imported products:
This information must be provided in the language of the importing country. Sometimes it also needs to be duplicated in another language.
It is also worth clarifying what specific requirements for labelling are established in each country.
Some products that are sold in Russia must be marked with special Data Matrix codes. This applies even to the products that will be exported.
Information about mandatory labelling is also included in the export declaration. This is necessary for the Russian customs to allow the export of goods.
Step 6. Currency control
Currency control is a set of measures that the state takes to ensure compliance with currency legislation and the legitimacy of foreign exchange transactions. Currency control in Russia is provided by the Russian Federation’s Government and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. Other authorized Russian banks also act as currency control agents.
Passing the currency control is mandatory for all foreign trade participants. It is regulated by the Federal Law "On Currency Regulation and Currency Control".
To carry out foreign economic activity, it is necessary to open a settlement account in the contract currency. The current legislation provides for the need to register an export contract for the purposes of currency control.
The need for transaction’s registration depends on the amount of the payment:
Other articles "Customs Regulations in Russia"